Friday, March 31, 2006
Recent development has seen banking industries thrusting ahead with the introduction of varieties of new products offering appealing features. On the contrary however, a random survey reveals that some people are not very pleased with the performance of Islamic Banks. One critical aspect in particular highlighted :
• The high profit rate charged by Islamic Bank for their financing product as compared to the interest rate charged by Conventional Bank. This factor is claimed to be the crucial factor leading to customers repelling from taking up financing from Islamic Bank.
This article will respond to the above-mentioned critic. To begin, lets look at the following facts:-
a) Islamic Bank is a profit driven company offering Shariah approved financial services and products and is not a welfare institution where services are rendered for free.
b) Islamic Bank is obligated to fulfill its duty to investors who are not merely subsidizing the institution and who like any other investor yearn for good return in investment.
c) Islamic Bank needs to pay the salary of its staff competitively with the market, which means that profit making is vital to enable the salary payment. Staff is fundamental in driving the Bank towards efficiency and competitiveness.
d) Islamic Bank has to cover the operational costs of its premises, tools and equipments. Therefore, how would an Islamic Bank survive, develop and expand if they are expected to provide its services for free or at a very low price ?
Surely, based on the above facts, it is clear that the nature of an Islamic Bank is actually similar to other business institutions. The following explanations answer the issue of why the Islamic Banks’ Financing rate is averagely higher than the Conventional.
1) The priceless value of Halal
A Muslim entrepreneur once told me about his experience in London where the price of a slaughtered chicken is much higher than the one, which is not being slaughtered and that Muslims consistently kept buying the expensive slaughtered chicken in order to ensure that their food are halal.
The above analogy shows that even though the Islamic Banks’ products are quite expensive (for some products only). However these are priced as such considering that these products have gone through the Shariah screening process and verified as halal.
On the other hand, although Muslim nowadays are very much concern of not eating pork (khinzir) or non-slaughtered chickens and etc, there are those that seems to pay less attention to their income, whether it is coming from halal sources or not and not hesitant to use the not halal income to purchase their daily foodstuff which according to Shariah is prohibited, similar to the prohibition of eating non-slaughtered chicken.
2) The Professional Shariah Screening and Auditing.
The Islamic Bank essentials requires Shariah screening and approval for its products and activities. This is an additional Shariah benchmarking and thus an additional cost, considering the time and expertise involved. One must realize that this Shariah approved products are priceless in value and cannot be valued by any amount of money and that Shariah approved financial products have been acknowledged as not only beneficial to mankind but also socially ethical products.
3) The highly potential players in the market.
Islamic Banks are highly potential players in the market. This is well acknowledged by Tan Sri Dato’ Dr Zeti Akhtar Aziz in her statement at Putrajaya on 22nd June 2005.
“..Since 2000, the domestic Islamic Banking industry has been growing at an average rate of 18% per annum in terms of assets. As at end-2004, total assets of the Islamic Banking sector increased to RM 94.6 billion, accounting for 10.5% of the total assets in the banking system. The market share of Islamic deposits and financing also increased to 11.2% and 11.3% respectively.”
Deliberating her point, Tan Sri Dato’ Dr Zeti adds that: “Bank Negara Malaysia, in charting the next stage of development for the Islamic Banking industry; envisage that the relative significance of their market share will increase to 20% by the year 2010.”
Thus, as the small players continue to grow, the financing rates offered may be averagely higher than those of the large and well-established players. This situation is equitable to the prices offered by retail seller and hypermarket, whereby retail seller’s price is higher as compared to hypermarket prices.
4) Lastly, it is important to understand that the financing rate charged by the Islamic Banks today is actually low and competitive to the rate offered by the Conventional Banks. Furthermore, if one detailed out the calculations, it may reveal that Islamic Banks are actually offering comparatively lower rate, for example when comparing between Interest rate offered by Conventional Banks in their Home loan products and profit rate from the Home Financing-i under Bai’ Bithaman Ajil (BBA) concept by Islamic Banks. One will learn that, Home-Financing-i offers fixed selling prices and the contractual profit rate (under this concept) will never change from the beginning of the payment period to the last settlement by the customer.
On the other hand, the home loan offered by Conventional banks are seemingly very attractive as the rate charged in the first year is relatively low. However, the rate for the remaining years will fluctuate as it is dependence on the Base Lending Rate (BLR) in the market. For example if the current BLR is 6 %, therefore the rate is equal to 6.25 % as the rate is equal to BLR + 0.25 %. What if BLR rises to 11 % or higher as has happened in the past Malaysian economic crisis ?
On the contrary, this will not occur in Islamic Banks’ because the selling price has already been fixed and agreed in the contractual agreement by both parties. The Islamic Banks’ profit rate does not have any relation to the BLR rate, thus it will not increase. In fact, it may even be reduced if the Islamic Banks were to provide rebate (ibra’).
We can now see competitive profit rate from Islamic Banks as the Islamic market reaches critical mass such as Car Financing-i under Al-Ijarah Thumma Al-Bai’ (AITAB) concept whereby customers are offered 2.5 % for the imported cars, which is very competitive if not better than the current interest rate offered by Conventional Banks.
In conclusion, considerations and supports from all are essentially needed to enable Islamic Banks to reach and go beyond the target set up by government. If we are willing to make the sacrifice today, we will not regret to see that our future generations will be able to enjoy competitive Islamic Banking products with very competitive pricing besides the assurance and guarantee that it is halal.
Wednesday, March 29, 2006
Following are excerpts from an address given by Hamas leader Khaled Mash'al at the Al-Murabit Mosque in Damascus. The address was delivered following the Friday sermon at the mosque and was aired on Al-Jazeera TV on February 3, 2006.
Subject: "You will be defeated"
Khaled Mash'al: We apologize to our Prophet Muhammad, but we say to him: Oh Prophet of Allah, do not be saddened, your nation will be victorious.
We say to this West, which does not act reasonably, and does not learn its lessons: By Allah, you will be defeated. You will be defeated in Palestine, and your defeat there has already begun. True, it is Israel that is being defeated there, but when Israel is defeated, its path is defeated, those who call to support it are defeated, and the cowards who hide behind it and support it are defeated. Israel will be defeated, and so will whoever supported or supports it.
America will be defeated in Iraq. Wherever the [Islamic] nation is targeted, its enemies will be defeated, Allah willing. The nation of Muhammad is gaining victory in Palestine. The nation of Muhammad is gaining victory in Iraq, and it will be victorious in all Arab and Muslim lands. "Their multitudes will be defeated and turn their backs [and flee]." These fools will be defeated, the wheel of time will turn, and times of victory and glory will be upon our nation, and the West will be full of remorse, when it is too late.
They think that history has ended with them. They do not know that the law of Allah cannot be changed or replaced. "You shall not find a substitute for the law of Allah. You shall not find any change to the law of Allah." Today, the Arab and Islamic nation is rising and awakening, and it will reach its peak, Allah willing. It will be victorious. It will link the present to the past. It will open up the horizons of the future. It will regain the leadership of the world. Allah willing, the day is not far off.
Don't you see that every act of deceit they contrive is being turned against them by Allah? Don't you see that they make every effort to defeat us militarily, but fail to do so? Israel and the occupation forces in Iraq are supplied with the entire Western military arsenal, yet they fail and are defeated.
Don't you see that they believe they are capable of using democracy to deceive the people, but then democracy is turned against them? Don't you see that they are spending their money in efforts to block the way of Allah, to thwart Hamas, to defeat it, and to help those whom they want, but [this plot] is turned against them? They are not acting reasonably.
They do not understand the Arab or Muslim mentality, which rejects the foreigner. Our Arab forefathers, before the advent of Islam, rejected the aggressors and the foreigners.
I bring good tidings to our beloved Prophet Muhammad: Allah's promise and the Prophet's prophecy of our victory in Palestine over the Jews and over the oppressive Zionists has begun to come true.
I say to the [European countries]: Hurry up and apologize to our nation, because if you do not, you will regret it. This is because our nation is progressing and is victorious. Do not leave a black mark in the collective memory of the nation, because our nation will not forgive you.
Tomorrow, our nation will sit on the throne of the world. This is not a figment of the imagination, but a fact. Tomorrow we will lead the world, Allah willing. Apologize today, before remorse will do you no good. Our nation is moving forwards, and it is in your interest to respect a victorious nation.
Our nation will be victorious. When it reaches the leadership of the world, and controls its own will decisions, then it will prevent this overt interference [in our affairs], and its pillaging of natural resources, and will prevent these recurring offenses against our land, against our nation, and against our holy places - then you will regret it.
The Western countries must stop the fools. Are these reasonable people? They allow offenses against Allah and the prophets. They are not offending only Muhammad, but all the prophets. But when an historian among them talks about the Holocaust, it is the sin of all sins. If anybody criticizes the Jews, this constitutes anti-Semitism. By law, they hold their own people accountable [for that]. The West, which waved the slogans of liberty after the French Revolution, three centuries ago, does not respect its own principles or slogans today. It violates them.
This victory, which was clearly evident in the elections, conveys a message to Israel, to America, and to all the oppressors around the world: You have no way of overcoming us. If you want war, we are ready. If you want democracy, we are ready. Whatever you want - we are ready. You will not defeat us. The time of defeat is over. Defeat within six days, defeat within hours, the defeat of armies - all this is over.
Today, you are fighting the army of Allah. You are fighting against peoples, for whom death for the sake of Allah, and for the sake of honor and glory, is preferable to life. You are fighting a nation that doest not tire, even after a 1,000 years of fighting. Today, you are facing peoples filled with faith, with the love of Allah, the love of Allah's Prophet, with bravery, glory, and pride - a nation that knows its way, a nation that knows what it is, a nation that respects itself. How can you possibly defeat us?
There is a chasm between you and our defeat. You will be the ones to be defeated, Allah willing. The time of defeat is gone, and the day of victory has come, Allah willing. Wherever you turn, you will fail.
Crowd: Death to Israel. Death to Israel. Death to America.
Khaled Mash'al: Before Israel dies, it must be humiliated and degraded. Allah willing, before they die, they will experience humiliation and degradation every day. America will be of no avail to them. Their generals will be of no avail to them. The last of their generals has been forgotten. Allah has made him disappear. He's over. Gone is that Sharon, behind whose back they would hide and find shelter, and with whom they would feel relatively secure. Today they have frail leaders, who don't even know where our Lord placed them.
Allah willing, we will make them lose their eyesight, we will make them lose their brains.
Their weapons will be of no avail to them. Their nuclear weapons will be of no use to them. They thought that they had hegemony over the region with their nuclear weapons, but suddenly Pakistan popped up with Islamic nuclear weapons, and they are afraid of Iran and several Arab countries have some chemical weapons.
Israel has begun to sense that its superiority has come to an end. Its army, which has superior conventional weapons - the air force, the armored corps, and the missiles - there are no longer wars in which these are used.
The Arabs have said: We don't want [conventional] wars, thank you very much. Leave the war to the peoples. Today, the Israeli weapons are of no use against the peoples. We have imposed a new equation in the war. In this equation, our tools are stronger. That is why we will defeat them, Allah willing.
"If you fight them, they will turn their backs on you, and will not be victorious." But the problem is that we need to fight them first. If we sleep at home, how are we to beat them?! "If you fight them..." - that is a divine promise... "If" - It is conditional: "If you fight them, they will turn their backs on you and will not be victorious." And indeed, when we began to fight, and we armed ourselves with a will to fight, we defeated them.
That is why Allah Akbar [Allah is greater]. We say that every day - Allah Akbar. Yes, Allah is greater than America. Allah is greater than the oppressors. Allah is greater than the superpowers. Allah is greater than the tyranny of the oppressing world, and Allah is greater than Israel. Since Allah is greater, and He supports us, we will be victorious.
By Allah, I know that all Arab leaders - and I have met many of them - deep inside want the resistance in Palestine to be victorious, and want Palestine to be liberated. Perhaps the need for flattery and for diplomacy, and the American hegemony force other things on them, but in their hearts they are happy when we are victorious.
If before the Hamas victory, there were several military wings, each with a few hundred or a few thousand fighters, under the rule of Hamas, if you continue to besiege us, to starve our people, to ignore our rights, and if you continue your occupation, your aggression, and your assassinations, we, the Hamas, will declare a general call to arms. We will place the entire Palestinian people at the disposal of the resistance and its weapons.
Crowd: Allah akbar, Allah be praised. Allah akbar, Allah be praised. Allah akbar, Allah be praised. Allah akbar, Allah be praised. Allah akbar, Allah be praised. Allah akbar, Allah be praised.
Khaled Mash'al: Be careful not to drive our people into a corner - Occupation, aggression, assassinations, 9,000 male and female prisoners, preventing aid, imposing a siege, causing starvation - and on top of all this, you don't want to recognize democracy and its results.
The German [Chancellor Angela] Merkel pops up and says: Democracy and success in the elections are not sufficient for Hamas to gain legitimacy. To hell with you all. How are we supposed to gain legitimacy? When you said we had the legitimacy of resistance, you called it terrorism. Now, we say we have the legitimacy of democracy, but you deny it. In that case, you yourself are not legitimate, because you emerged through democracy. This is the logic of a frail and defeatist person.
Brothers and sister, there is confusion in the Western world, and in the American administration. Allah has come to them from where they did not expect him. That is the grace of Allah. That is why we do not fear them. We do not fear their threats.
Today they give us an ultimatum: Recognize Israel. Wonderful! The murderer is not required by anyone to recognize the rights of his victim, but the victim is required to recognize the rights of his murderer, and to sing his praises.
Hamas has a vision. Hamas has a plan. Hamas can manage the political battle, just like it managed the military battle, but in a different language, with different tools, and recognizing Israel is not one of them. Nor is giving up the rights, giving up the right to resistance, and nor is giving up the weapons of the resistance.
Nevertheless, we want to deal with politics, but there is a difference between the politics of the weak and defeatists, which we will constantly repeat - the kind of politics that does not impress the enemy and so it does nothing, because, like in the market, products that are praised too much become cheap. If we continue to praise our products, constantly saying: "We love peace," "We have given up the option of war," "Peace is our strategic option," "For God's sake, Israel, give us a few scraps of land" - By Allah, we will be degraded in the eyes of our enemies.
We will conduct our politics in the language of victory. We will conduct our policy in a confident language. We will conduct our politics in the language of those who are steadfast and sure of
themselves. Besides, by Allah, after the people has elected us, and has bestowed upon us all this power, we will disrespect its rights?
The people has given us a deposit, and has empowered us to liberate its land, to restore Jerusalem and its holy places. It has empowered us to release 9,000 male and female prisoners. It has empowered us to stop the aggression, to liberate the land, and to restore its rights. The people has empowered us to bring back 5.5 million Palestinian refugees and displaced people to their homeland. After all this, Hamas - in order to please America and the European Union, and in order for the pressure on us to stop, and in order for their highnesses to allow us to establish a government... We are not trying to please them.
I say to America, Europe, and the West: It is in your interests to change your relations and policies regarding the Arab and Islamic nation and the Palestinian cause. Because we are winning, it is in your interests to deal with the victors, not the losers.
Israel will be defeated and will be of no use to you. The Arabs will be victorious. The Muslims will be victorious. Palestine will be victorious. Change your policy soon, if you want to protect your interests, and maintain healthy relations with the East.
Tuesday, March 21, 2006
Can Muslims work with/for non-Muslim Government?
interesting article from http://www.jelas.org/ - ( jelas.org is the official site for ALKIS's writers)
There is no straight forward answer. However, there are evidence to suggest that this question has touched in the Koran. The bold instance is the whole of surah Yoosef (surah no 12), in particular verse no 55. The verse narrates that when Egypt was forecasted to have a seven-years long draught, the Prophet Yoosef (Joseph) offered himself to be the state treasurer. The king who was only identified by the holy Koran as al-‘Azeez, appointed Joseph to what his wished for. The second evidence is in surah Ghafir (surah no. 40) from verse 28 to 45. It was about a man who is believed as one of Fir’aun (Pharaoh) ministers or senior advisors. Others in the opinion that he was Pharaoh’s nephew. He did not only question Pharaoh’s conducts when to face with Prophet Moses, but also came out with very polite, knowledgeable and highly professional advice. The story about Pharaoh and the man wraps up at verse no. 45 with a decree that in the day judgement he escapes from the hellfire.
The third evidence is hidden in verse no 25 surah al-Fath (surah no. 48). Apparently, this verse is to advise Prophet Muhammad to refrain from entering Mecca in the 9th of the Hegira. By abiding Allah’s command, the Prophet who was defying opinions of most his companions who wished for attacking the Meccans who obstructed their way to the holy land, the Prophet signed a seized fire agreement with the disbelievers, known as the Treaty of Under the Tree. The wisdom of Allah’s ordains in this verse was only apprehended after the Conquest of Mecca a year later. It has been found that, prior to the incident a number of the Meccans, among which were still serving the pre-Islam Meccan regime but embraced Islam secretly. Among whom was Khaled bin al-Walid who later served as the Prophet’s army general. Not only that, Khaled has been the greatest Moslem army general ever known.
In the middle-age the history repeated. It was about Harun al-din al-Hamadani, born a Jew, embraced Islam during his teenage and served Hulagu regime. He served the government until the Hulagu’s grand-son era, Mahmood Ghazan who became moslem and expand the Islam Empire.
Although the four separate incidents address four different circumstances, one thing is common. That is these gentlemen who served the non-Moslem regimes discharged their duties nobly, consciously and undoubtedly highly professional.
Monday, March 06, 2006
mungkin kita boleh justify sedikit kenaikan harga barang bakar ini.
di sini dikemukakan purata harga minyak mentah dunia (USD/setong) berdasarkan spot price tujuh gred minyak mentah (Brent, West Texas Intermediate, West Texas Sour, Lousiana Light Sweet, Urals, Minas dan Tapis). Iaitu utk tempoh antara Jan 87 - Dec 2005:
Thursday, March 02, 2006
hari ini dalam sejarah - 28/02/2006 - harga barang bakar asas petroleum meningkat sebanyak RM0.30 seliter. opss... jgn lupakan CNG, compressed natural gas, yang juga mengalami kenaikan RM0.30 sekilo. ada sedikit statistic kenaikan harga petrol daripada penghujung alaf kedua dan awal alaf ketiga:
sebelum 1990 - RM 0.89
Tahun 1990 - RM 1.10 (kenaikan RM 0.21)
01/10/2000 - RM 1.20 (kenaikan RM 0.10)
20/10/2001 - RM 1.30 (kenaikan RM 0.10)
01/05/2002 - RM 1.32 (kenaikan RM 0.02)
31/10/2002 - RM 1.33 (kenaikan RM 0.01)
01/03/2003 - RM 1.35 (kenaikan RM 0.02)
01/05/2004 - RM 1.37 (kenaikan RM 0.02)
01/10/2004 - RM 1.42 (kenaikan RM 0.05)
05/05/2005 - RM 1.52 (kenaikan RM 0.10)
31/07/2005 - RM 1.62 (kenaikan RM 0.10)
28/02/2006 – RM 1.92 (kenaikan RM 0.30)
ada beberapa perkara ayat "default" daripada pemerintah bila ada kenaikan harga (baca: pengurangan subsidi). mari kita lihat
1. harga minyak di malaysia masih lagi murah jika dibandingkan dengan negara2 lain.
2. kenaikan ini tidak akan membebankan rakyat.
3. wang lebihan daripada pengurangan subsidi ini akan digunakan untuk pembangunan, yang untung rakyat juga.
4. kerajaan tidak lagi mampu untuk mensubsidi minyak. -- ade ke patut --
ini lah antara sample2 ayat yg mmg akan keluar bila harga minyak. kalau buat programming untuk search, taip je perkataan harga minyak, result dia ayat2 diatas laaa.
sebenarnya kenaikan harga minyak ni macam tak boleh nak di sekat, kadang2 betul jugak, kalau harga minyak naik, dan kerajaan terus menerus subsidi untuk kekalkan harga, habis duit untuk bakar minyak jelaa... mungkin ada beberapa perkara yang kerajaan boleh lakukan untuk counter balik tindakan menaikkan RM0.30 harga minyak ni.
1. kurangkan cukai kenderaan
2. hadkan tempoh pinjaman kenderaan kepada maksimum 5 tahun sahaja
3. kurangkan@hapuskan cukai jalan
4. kurangkan premium untuk insuranse kenderaan
sekarang mari kita bincangkan satu persatu. kalau dahulu, ramai masih boleh menerima alasan karajaan bahawa negara kita mempunyai cukai kenderaan yang tinggi kerana kerajaan subsidi minyak supaya harganya rendah. akan tetapi senario hari ini tidak lagi memungkinkan alasan ini diterima baik oleh khalayak. kerajaan selalu menyatakan harga minyak kita masih rendah berbanding negara lain, tetapi selalu cuba-cuba untuk melupakan hakikat cukai kenderaan kita antara yang tertinggi seantero dunia. jesteru, pengurangan cukai bagi kenderaan baru adalah sesuatu yang perlu di lakukan, bukan hanya berselindung dengan nama bermacam-macam jenis cukai yg pada hakikatnya tetap tidak berubah atau makin tinggi.
kita lihat pulak kesan dan akibatnya bila cukai kenderaan rendah. ya, harga kereta akan rendah. bila harga rendah, maka ramai yang akan berpusu2 untuk membeli kereta baru. akibatnya, jalanraya akan semakin penuh dah sesak. bad for the country right? jadi disini kita pergi kepada cadangan yang kedua, iaitu hadkan pinjaman kenderaan kepada 5 tahun sahaja. jadi, keadaan akan menjadi seimbang kembali kerana tidak ramai yang mampu mengambil pinjaman setakat 5 tahun, dan tambahan lagi 10% atau 15% downpayment tu wajib, confirm akan ada pengecutan dalam jumlah jualan kereta. tetapi, pengurangan jumlah jualan ini tidak lama, kerana selepas 3 tahun jualan akan meningkat kembali kerana ramai yang mampu untuk bertukar kereta. secara mudahnya, selepas 3 tahun, jumlah pinjaman adalah kurang berbanding nilai kereta. ramai yang berminat berukar2 kereta sebenarnya, cuma masa ini, mereka tidak mampu kerana nilai pinjaman masih lagi lebih tinggi daripada nilai kereta. akan lebih banyak lah kereta2 baru yg dapat membantu mengurangkan pencemaran. tambahan lagi, jika dikuatkuasakan 5 tahun pinjaman dan 10% downpayment, kerajaan dapat memastikan hanya mereka yang benar2 berkemampuan untuk membeli dan membiayai kereta sahaja yang menggunakan kereta. secara tak lansung, kita dapat mengurangkan NPL dan tarik kereta sbb tak mampu bayar. sekali gus boleh kurangkan masalah samseng tarik kereta. banyak sangkutan2 nya...
untuk cadangan ketiga, pengurangan atau penghapusan cukai jalan. ramai yg setuju, tambahan pulak sekarnag makain banyak jalanraya bertol. cukai bayar, tol bayar, naik pulak selalu tol tu. walaupun macam2 alasan kerajaan, tetapi, perlu jugak pengurangan atau penghapusan cukai jalan ini. bukan apa, kerajaan kita kurang bijak dalam buat agreement dengan syarikat konsesi lebuhraya, tu yang selalu toll naik tanpa sekatan tu ( sbnarnya, bukan bodoh, saja membodohkan diri, sbb tu syarikat kroni2 dia, eh eh, kalau aku tak buat agreement macam tu, nnt election sapa nak support kempen duit aku -- angguk angguk geleng geleng --). mungkin cadangan ni tak ramai berminat, sbb cadangan keempat lagi menarik.
cadangan keempat, kerajaan kena buat sesuatu agar premium insuranse dikurangkan. bentuk satu kadah baru agar rakyat (pemilik kenderaan) dapat membayar kurang premium ini. pada masa sekarang, premium insurans amat tinggi, sungguh membebankan. amatlah senang hati ini jika pihak kerajaan dapat membuat satu kaedah yang menguntungkan pemilik kenderaan, bukan syarikat insuranse sahaja.
ini adalah antara 4 cadangan yg mungkin boleh untuk dipertimbangkan dan diperhalusi. bukan apa, menteri mungkin tak rasa, tapi kebanyakan rakyat cukup cukup cukup cukup terasa bahang kenaikan bahan bakar ini. jgn lah selalu memberi contoh harga petrol di UK 2 kali ganda harga di malaysia. agak2 berapa basic salary fresh graduate disana? 4 atau 5 kali ganda daripada disini. harap2 pihak kerajaan dapat membuka mata dan telinga, semualah deria yang ada, untuk bercakap dengan lebih berilmu dan bijak. 20 tahun dahulu mungkin boleh kerajaan memberi maklumat dan seluruh rakyat telan bulat2, tetapi tidak hari ini. yang masih tidak difahami, mengapa sampai harini pemerintah masih lagi mengeluarkan alasan2 yang lebih kurang sama, tidakkah mereka berfikir? mungkinkah ini tanda2 kejatuhan? wallahua'lam
moga allah memelihara kita dan pemimpin kita dan negara kita. ya allah, masukkan aku dalam golongan yang sedikit...